It can also be found after adjectives (and sometimes derived adverbs) of kindred meaning (δεινός "skillful", δυνατός "able", οἷός τε "able", ἱκανός "sufficient, capable" etc.). the full infinitive (to-infinitive) has the word to at the beginning. In many other languages the infinitive is a single word, often with a characteristic inflective ending, like morir ("(to) die") in Spanish, manger ("(to) eat") in French, portare ("(to) carry") in Latin, lieben ("(to) love") in German, читать (chitat', "(to) read") in Russian, etc. For example, in Literary Arabic the sentence "I want to write a book" is translated as either urīdu an aktuba kitāban (lit. In all Romance languages, infinitives can also form nouns. "Our nature is more competent than the one chosen by the gods as best". Such phrases or clauses may play a variety of roles within sentences, often being nouns (for example being the subject of a sentence or being a complement of another verb), and sometimes being adverbs or other types of modifier. Of course the verb do when forming a main verb can appear in the infinitive.) The four verb moods in the English language are the subjunctive mood, the indicative mood, the infinitive mood and the imperative mood. (grammar) The uninflected form of a verb. "I want that you come", with come being in the subjunctive mood). Second-declension noun. Latin has present, perfect and future infinitives, with active and passive forms of each. This construction can be used as an indirect speech mechanism, in many instances interchangeable with a complementary declarative clause introduced by "ὅτι/"ὡς" (or a supplementary participle). Many verb forms known as infinitives differ from gerunds (verbal nouns) in that they do not inflect for case or occur in adpositional phrases. it can form a genitive that denotes cause etc. Opposing linguistic theories typically do not consider the to-infinitive a distinct constituent, instead regarding the scope of the particle to as an entire verb phrase; thus, to buy a car is parsed like to [buy [a car]], not like [to buy] [a car]. The use of zu with infinitives is similar to English to, but is less frequent than in English. , The difference between the present and the aorist infinitive of this sort is aspect or stage of action, not the tense —despite their tense stem, such infinitives always have a future reference, because of the volitive meaning of their governing verb. The two forms are mostly in complementary distribution – certain contexts call for one, and certain contexts for the other; they are not normally interchangeable, except in occasional instances like after the verb help, where either can be used. Hebrew has two infinitives, the infinitive absolute and the infinitive construct. to be in a genitive construction as a possessive or objective genitive etc.) Used mostly since Middle Egyptian. "I want that I write a book", with a verb in the subjunctive mood) or urīdu kitābata kitābin (lit. The only verb that is modal in common modern Romanian is the verb a putea, to be able to. 1847, J. J. P. Le Brethon and L. Sandier, Guide to the French language; especially devised for persons who wish to study that language without the assistance of a teacher. In traditional descriptions of English, the infinitive is the basic dictionary form of a verb when used non-finitely, with or without the particle to. Used mostly since Middle Egyptian. 'to sit'.  The same constructional alternation is available in English (declarative content clause -a that clause- or to-infinitive), as shown below. the infinitival construction is the rule in classical Greek. The bare infinitive and the to-infinitive have a variety of uses in English. The Ancient Greek infinitive is a non-finite verb form, sometimes called a verb mood, with no endings for person or number, but it is (unlike in Modern English) inflected for tense and voice (for a general introduction in the grammatical formation and the morphology of the Ancient Greek infinitive see here and for further information see these tables). Nevertheless, dictionaries use the first infinitive. Imperative mood - definition of imperative mood by The Free Dictionary For that reason, the present first-person singular conjugation is the dictionary form in Bulgarian, while Macedonian uses the third person singular form of the verb in present tense. Some other Balto-Slavic languages have the infinitive typically ending in, for example, -ć (sometimes -c) in Polish, -t’ in Slovak, -t (formerly -ti) in Czech and Latvian (with a handful ending in -s on the latter), -ty (-ти) in Ukrainian, -ць (-ts') in Belarusian. As far as the genitive is concerned, a predicate substantive or a participle normally stands in the accusative while an adjective may stand either in accusative or in genitive case. Instead, they use finite verb forms in ordinary clauses or various special constructions. In Ancient Greek the infinitive has four tenses (present, future, aorist, perfect) and three voices (active, middle, passive). The formation of the infinitive in the Romance languages reflects that in their ancestor, Latin, almost all verbs had an infinitive ending with -re (preceded by one of various thematic vowels). Note: there are certain cases where the subject of the infinitive, whether of the declarative or the dynamic type, is put in accusative case, eventhough it is co-referent with the subject of the main verb; in this mechanism emphasis or contrast is present. The optative mood, infinitives and participles are found in four tenses (present, aorist, perfect, and future) and all three voices. The other North Germanic languages have the same vowel in both forms. Infinitival clauses may be embedded within each other in complex ways, like in the sentence: Here the infinitival clause to get married is contained within the finite dependent clause that Brett Favre is going to get married; this in turn is contained within another infinitival clause, which is contained in the finite independent clause (the whole sentence). In Russian, sentences such as "I want you to leave" do not use an infinitive. The infinitive without the article is of two sorts and has two discrete uses: the dynamic infinitive and the declarative infinitive. Normally, the Latin imperative mood expresses direct commands (orders) like "Go to sleep!" For the difference between the present and aorist dynamic infinitive see the discussion in the above section. As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable to all languages. [as an adjective] Gram. In Spanish and Portuguese, infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir (Spanish also has reflexive forms in -arse, -erse, -irse), while similarly in French they typically end in -re, -er, oir, and -ir. Yet in the last two examples another reading is also possible, considering ἀποδιδόναι and ἀποδοῦναι to be present and aorist declarative infinitive respectively: "I swear that I give (always, or in any relevant situation etc.) The perfect has mostly taken over the functions of the perfective, and the subjunctive and periphrastic prospective have mostly replaced the prospective. In North Germanic languages the final -n was lost from the infinitive as early as 500–540 AD, reducing the suffix to -a. Such infinitive clauses or infinitival clauses, are one of several kinds of non-finite clause. 5. In Romanian, both short and long-form infinitives exist; the so-called "long infinitives" end in -are, -ere, -ire and in modern speech are used exclusively as verbal nouns, while there are a few verbs that cannot be converted into the nominal long infinitive. Following certain verbs or prepositions, infinitives commonly do have an implicit subject, e.g.. As these examples illustrate, the implicit subject of the infinitive occurs in the objective case (them, him) in contrast to the nominative case that occurs with a finite verb, e.g., "They ate their dinner." On the other hand, as it is indicated by predicate adjectives/sunstantives or participial constituents of the infinitival clause, it is not unusual at all for an accusative to be understood and be supplied by context as the subject of the infinitive, as the following examples illustrate. Examples are: icatax ihmiimzo 'I want to go', where icatax is the singular infinitive of the verb 'go' (singular root is -atax), and icalx hamiimcajc 'we want to go', where icalx is the plural infinitive. Athematic verbs, and perfect actives and aorist passives, add the suffix -ναι instead, e.g., διδό-ναι.